Hard Rock Mining, Natural Acid Rock Drainage, Mining Acid Rock Drainage, Neutral Acid Rock Drainage

There has been so much research, discussion, debate and activity over the subject, I am wondering how I should start this web page.

I'll start by stating that there are many variables that determine the severity of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) or even the possible presence of ARD.

During my studies of sulfide mining, I have studied everything from exploration of sulfide deposits to mine closure and monitoring procedures. I have seen minerals that contain sulfur yet are very slow to oxidize and I have seen ore samples that are so reactive that if they were to be stacked more than 6 inches high and exposed to oxygen they would spontaneously combust. I have searched through thousands of pages of information. I have visited many mines. I wrote a good portion of a report on the subject of sulfide mining, which may someday be published.

If you are looking to learn a bit about sulfide mining, keep this in mind. The chemical and physical variables are complex and vary from site to site. I can think of one mine in particular that was full of sulfides but never had any issues with acid generation from its mine or waste rock because of the large quantities of acid neutralizing rocks present. Other sites have acid generation actively happening in a naturally without the presence of mines, and there are some mine sites that have acid generation as well.

If you are looking for more information on sulfide mining and acid rock drainage, I highly recommend 3 sites.


The first site I recommend is from Robertson Geo-Consultants, the site is:  http://technology.infomine.com/enviromine/ard/home.htm


The next site I recommend is from the ADTI (Acid Drainage Technology Initiative):  ADTI (Acid Drainage Technology Initiative)


One more site I’ll recommend today is from the Pennsylvania DEP: http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres/bamr/amd/science_of_amd.htm



Keep in mind that not all web sites out there are correct. Keep in mind that the variables can be complex, and will vary from ARD site to ARD site. The rock composition can be different chemically, crystal structures can be different, physical size of particles can be different, shear strengths, different water flows, porosity, airflow, temperature, mediating chemicals, iron content, physical geography of the area, biological content, weathering, erosion, vegetation and other variables can all have influence on what will happen as far as ARD is concerned.


What this means the information you find on the web may or may not be relative to your interest in ARD. Again be warned, not all of the web pages out there regarding ARD are correct with their data or message. Best of luck with your searchs and research.





More web links for mining information pertaining to hard rock mining.



TechnoMine - Mining Technology and Technical Aspects of Geology


An Introduction to Acid Rock Drainage - Chris Mills, M.Sc., P.Eng.


Thiobacillus ferrooxidans


Mining Technology


Massive List of Related Links







Mining Photos from the UP


Mining pictures from the Iron River area



Key Words to Search for Related to Hard Rock Mining.


Acid Rock Drainage

Acid Mine Drainage

Acid Rock Drainage disasters

Hard Rock Mines

Hard Rock Mining

Methods for controlling Acid Rock Drainage

Natural Acid Rock Drainage

Neutral Acid Mine Drainage

Mining for minerals

Sulfide Mining

Sulfide Ores




Links of Some Mining Companies Involved with Hard Rock Mining.

















Biological Influences With Sulfide Mining.







Did you know that some people in history used to drink natural acid rock drainage believing it had health giving properties? Do not do it!


NASA and Rio River Spain

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